The following vaccines may be recommended for your travel to South Asia. Discuss your travel plans and personal health with a health-care provider to determine which vaccines you will need
- Hepatitis A or immune globulin (IG): Transmission of hepatitis A virus can occur through direct person-to-person contact; through exposure to contaminated water, ice, or shellfish harvested in contaminated water; or from fruits, vegetables, or other foods that are eaten uncooked and that were contaminated during harvesting or subsequent handling.
- Hepatitis B: Especially if you might be exposed to blood or body fluids especially through medical treatment. Hepatitis B vaccine is now recommended for all infants and children ages 11–12 years who did not receive the series as infants.
- Japanese encephalitis: If you plan to visit rural farming areas and under special circumstances, such as a known outbreak of Japanese encephalitis.
- Malaria: Your risk of malaria may be high in these countries, including cities. For details concerning risk and preventive medications, see Malaria Information for Travelers to South Asia. Chloroquine is NOT an effective antimalarial drug in the Indian Subcontinent and should not be taken to prevent malaria in this region. Prevent this serious disease by seeing your health care provider for a prescription antimalarial drug and by protecting yourself against mosquito bites.
- Rabies: If you might have extensive unprotected outdoor exposure in rural areas, such as might occur during camping, hiking, or bicycling, or engaging in certain occupational activities.
- Typhoid: Typhoid fever can be contracted through contaminated drinking water or food, or by eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected. Large outbreaks are most often related to fecal contamination of water supplies or foods sold by street vendors Vaccination is particularly important because of the presence of S. typhi strains resistant to multiple antibiotics in this region.
- As needed, booster doses for tetanus-diphtheria and measles, and a one-time dose of polio for adults.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water or, if hands are not visibly soiled, use a waterless, alcohol-based hand rub to remove potentially infectious materials from your skin and help prevent disease transmission.
- Drink only bottled or boiled water, or carbonated (bubbly) drinks in cans or bottles. Avoid tap water, fountain drinks, and ice cubes. If this is not possible, learn how to make water safer to drink.
- Do not eat food purchased from street vendors or food that is not well cooked to reduce risk of infection like hepatitis A and typhoid fever.
- Do not drink beverages with ice.
- Avoid dairy products, unless you know they have been pasteurized.
- Take your malaria prevention medication before, during, and after travel, as directed.
- Protect yourself from mosquito insect bites:
- Do not swim in fresh water to avoid exposure to certain water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis. For more information, please see Swimming and Recreational Water Precautions.
- Do not handle animals, especially monkeys, dogs, and cats, to avoid bites and serious diseases (including rabies and plague). Consider pre-exposure rabies vaccination if you might have extensive unprotected outdoor exposure in rural areas. For more information, please see Animal-Associated Hazards.